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Thursday, 30 June 2011

Nineteenth century

Nineteenth century

  • 1802 - Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac develops his law which describes the relationship between a gas's pressure and temperature.
  • 1807 - Nicéphore Niépce installed his 'moss, coal-dust and resin' fuelled Pyréolophore internal combustion engine in a boat and powered up the river Saone in France.
  • 1807 - Franco/Swiss engineer François Isaac de Rivaz built an engine powered by the internal combustion of hydrogen and oxygen mixture and used it to power a wheeled vehicle.[3]
  • 1816 - Robert Stirling invented his hot air Stirling engine
  • 1824 - Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot developed the Carnot cycle, a hypothetical engine that is the basic theoretical model for all heat engines. This gives the first early insight into the second law of thermodynamics.
  • 1834 - Jacob Perkins, obtained the first patent for a vapor-compression refrigeration system.
  • 1850s - Rudolf Clausius sets out the concept of the thermodynamic system and positioned entropy as being that in any irreversible process a small amount of heat energy δQ is incrementally dissipated across the system boundary
  • 1859 - Etienne Lenoir developed the first commercially successful internal combustion engine, a single-cylinder, two-stroke engine with electric ignition of illumination gas (not gasoline).
  • 1861 - Alphonse Beau de Rochas of France originates the concept of the four-stroke internal-combustion engine by emphasizing the previously unappreciated importance of compressing the fuel–air mixture before ignition.
  • 1861 - Nikolaus Otto patents a two-stroke internal combustion engine building on Lenoir's.
  • 1872 - Pulsometer steam pump, a pistonless pump, patented by Charles Henry Hall. It was inspired by the Savery steam pump.
  • 1873 - The British chemist Sir William Crookes invents the light mill a device which turns the radiant heat of light dirrectly into rotary motion.
  • 1877 - Theorist Ludwig Boltzmann visualized a probabilistic way to measure the entropy of an ensemble of ideal gas particles, in which he defined entropy to be proportional to the logarithm of the number of microstates such a gas could occupy.
  • 1877 - Nikolaus Otto patents a practical four-stroke internal combustion engine (U.S. Patent 194,047)
  • 1883 - Samuel Griffin of Bath UK patents a six-stroke internal combustion engine. [4]
  • 1884 - Charles A. Parsons builds the first modern Steam turbine.
  • 1886 - Herbert Akroyd Stuart builds the prototype Hot bulb engine, an oil fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition engine similar to the later diesel but with a lower compression ratio and running on a fuel air mixture.
  • 1892 - Rudolf Diesel patents the Diesel engine (U.S. Patent 608,845) where a high compression ratio generates hot gas which then ignites an injected fuel.

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